Historical Greek Sounds

Letters, Column


Bringing to the earnest learner of Greek, whether at the beginning, advanced, or professional level, the authentic sounds of Greek.


To acquaint users of Greek with the unbroken record of the historical sounds of the language from classical times to the present, and to effect an awareness among users of Biblical Greek in particular of the ramifications of the Erasmian pronunciation.

A New Book

READING AND PRONOUNCING BIBLICAL GREEK: Historical Pronunciation versus Erasmian

Wipf and Stock Publishers (June 2020), 7″ x 10″ 192 pages.

Order this book through AMAZON HERE

…or through PAYPAL by forwarding $22 to NTGreek@att.net.

Promotional PayPal offer: For a limited time, order 2 books @ $20 ea.; 3–4 books @ $19 ea.; 5 or more books @ $18 ea. FREE shipment. Forward PayPal payment to NTGreek@att.net.

This book is sold internationally at the lowest shipment cost. Inquire at NTGreek@att.net, or send an e-mail to orders@wipfandstock.com.


Vol. II

This Workbook serves as a reading, writing, listening, and pronouncing guide to Biblical Greek as well as Neohellenic (Modern Greek). It may be used as supplementary material in a college course, homeschool setting, or self-directed study. It includes written exercises, tests, answer keys, and audiovisual drills and reading passages that are also on the CD. The exercises and sound files will prove helpful to those accustomed to other (non-Greek) methods of pronouncing Greek. VIDEO 2 is based on Vol. II.

To order Vol. II through AMAZON click HERE 

To order Vol. II through PAYPAL, forward $23 to NTGreek@att.net. Price includes packaging & shipment, tax, and PayPal fee.

8.5” x 11” spiral-bound, 7 chapters, 79 pages. CD 16 files, 1.10 hrs.


III. 2 COVER.jpg

Grammar Essentials will benefit the mid-beginning and intermediate student of Greek as well as the advanced seminarian and can be used as a resource by the professional. An all-in-one grammar book, pronunciation guide, and workbook featuring transliterated exercises, verbal aspect, exegetical tips, and translational insights, Grammar Essentials is a select collection of lessons I have shared with learners of Greek over many years. A companion CD goes with select reading exercises.

To order Vol. III through AMAZON click HERE

To order Vol. III through PAYPALforward $26 to NTGreek@att.netPrice includes packaging & shipment, tax, and PayPal fee.

8.5″ x 11” spiral-bound, 15 chapters, 250 pages. CD 16 files, 28 minutes.

6 Videos

VIDEO 1 (Original) Development of the historical Greek sounds (28:36 min.)


This video has the best explanation of spurious diphthongs and why we don’t pronounce iota subscript that I have ever seen. It also does a great job with the historical pronunciation of the rough breather. Then there is the helpful connection between similar types of vowels. … I think this video is very helpful.” —Dr. John Schwandt, Director, Institute of Biblical Greek

“Immense gratitude to you … for the marvelously comprehensive and engaging presentation on  Greek pronunciation, enhanced by the valuable historic introduction. And excellent photography, typography, technology! I learned SO much from it and shall pass it on to our students.” —Dr. Edith Pennoyer Livermore, Loyola University, Chicago

VIDEO 1 (Abridged) Development of the historical Greek sounds (20:46 min.)

GREEK PRONUNCIATION (Historical Development - Revised)This video is an abridged version of the one above:

VIDEO 2  Alphabet, Sounds, Listening, Reading, Pronunciation (24:05 min.)


“You have produced a very useful tool for introductory students. It is very clear, detailed, but not too long. Thanks.” —Dr. Bradley McLean, University of Toronto, Canada

“[T]his is a very useful video – indeed this is one I can pass on to students. I particularly liked the fact that you read out a passage at the end. All in all, a very useful resource.” —Dr. Chris Tilling, St. Mellitus College, England

“I watched [this video] several times to make sure I had it down.  I did not like the textbook way of pronouncing, so this was a blessing! I feel like I can read Greek quickly and naturally!” —Alexander Strickland

VIDEO 3  1 John — A Reading and Pronunciation Exercise using the entire First Epistle of John (35:04 min.)

The reading in this video is intentionally slow in the beginning, then progressively approximates conversational speed, all along allowing the reader to practice repeating the parts being read.

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What viewers of this video say:    “Finally, finally a real Greek speaks his tongue slowly and distinctly so students can learn. May God bless you for this gift, Sir!” … “Thank you so much for doing this!  I’ve learned a lot from this clip.” … “Wonderful reading of the text in a clear and precise voice!”

VIDEO 4  Reading and Pronunciation Tips (1.46 min.).

Pronunciation Tips.jpg

A very short video with tips for reading Greek.

VIDEO 5   The Epistle to the Ephesians (40.30 min.)


This video, like Video 3, read at a slow-to-moderate speed, enables you to practice reading, listening, and pronouncing Greek using the Neohellenic (Modern Greek) pronunciation. Neohellenic preserves the historical sounds of Greek, so its pronunciation comes very close to the pronunciation of the Κοινή “koine” of the New Testament. The evidence of the historical Greek sounds, collectively referred to as the Historical Greek Pronunciation (HGP), is discussed in Vol. I (above).

VIDEO 6  The Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed

A Greek pronunciation exercise using the statement of faith adhered to by Christians of all denominations. The Nicene Creed, ΤΟ ΠΙΣΤΕΥΩ “The I Believe,” was originally written in Nicaea in AD 325.

Other Books (English / Greek) —

A Captivating Biography


An eBook by the same author

The PROSELYTIZER (2011) — From Asia Minor to Crete, Greece. This book is the record of a man’s deeds, thoughts, and motives as he captured them with his pen first, as a refugee teenager, then as a worldly young man, later as a growing Christian, and finally as a minister of the gospel. This gripping account portrays an energetic young man in quest for meaning in life but who, in utter despair, turns suicidal. Miraculously spared from the “claws of Death,” he seeks God and becomes inwardly transformed. Eager to reach his fellow citizens with the message of Christ, he learns unconditional obedience to God as he witnesses divine intervention during business failures, poverty, war, captivity in a German concentration camp, mass execution, hardship, persecution by religious leaders and the authorities, false accusations of proselytizing with gifts and money, and repeated imprisonment for sharing the gospel. A legacy of faithful Christian service, this true story will touch you, encourage you, and uplift you. Foreword by Everett Stenhouse and Glen D. Cole.

Buyer’s review: “…This story begins with tragedy and yet is incredibly inspirational from start to finish. I will treasure this book … as one of the best books I have ever read. This book clearly shows the Holy Spirit’s powerful work in an ordinary man’s life by making his life extraordinary.” —Michael Isham

iPad, iPod touch, iPhone – iTunes click HERE.  Kindle, Mac, PC, etc.AMAZON click HERE.

For a hard copy through PAYPAL, please forward $10 to NTGreek@att.net  (FREE SHIPMENT within the continental US.) 20 chapters, 290 pages.

Book excerpts:


Contact the author at: NTGreek@att.net


Read the book shown above (The PROSELYTIZER) in Greek with the title Το ΑΠΑΓΟΡΕΥΜΕΝΟ ΒΙΒΛΙΟ: Η Ζωή μου Πριν και Μετά The FORBIDDEN BOOK: My Life Before and After

For a paperback copy, send a note to NTGreek@att.net.

Perfect binding, 5.5″ x 8.5″, 356 pages. (Published in 2018)

About the author: Philemon “Phil” Zachariou graduated from high school in Greece and from a Bible school in England, and holds a B.A. and M.A. in applied linguistics and a Ph.D. in religious education. Retired, he writes and teaches Greek and English. During most of his career as an educator and public school administrator he taught, among other college subjects, Greek at California State University, the Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, Adult Education, and Capital Bible College. He currently teaches English at Northwest University, and New Testament Greek for BibleMesh Institute.